Assignment 2: Delving into the words of a child

My corpus is comprised of data collected and stored as a part of the Child Languages Data Exchange System database a part of the TalkBank system of collected speech transcriptions. The database is maintained by Professor Brian MacWhinney at Carnegie Mellon University since the 1990s, and has become one of, if not the largest single collection of spoken child utterances available. The data within the system dates as far back as the 1960s and is continually updated with additional transcriptions from more recent studies. This corpus was then analyzed using CHILDES’s open-source analysis software, CLAN, in order to divide the large pool of data into smaller subsets organized by Roger Brown’s Stages for Syntactical and Morphological Development. This model divides the different stages of a child’s syntactical speech progression into 5 stages representing the most basic child speech to more syntactically advanced sentence structures. One interesting thing to note here is that the data itself is not actually organized by the individual speaker’s age whatsoever, but merely by the various stages I have previously outlined. That being said, there are some general age mappings for Brown’s stages that happen to appear in the data present. For instance, simpler sentences are more likely spoken by younger children while more complex sentences are more likely spoken by older ones. These divisions have proven very interesting in visualization analysis for my accumulated corpora.

Child Utterance RelationsChild Utterance Relations             The above images display a scatter plot of my corpus’ word data created using the Voyant platform. The above visualization breaks down the 1000 most frequently used words from my corpus and then break them into clusters by relative usage (displayed via different colors). These different nodes are then placed on a plot in relation to each other based off of their relative use and connections within the text. This visualization is novel in its ability to display the interconnected nature of early speech sentence structure. All spoken utterances are cleanly related to their counterparts, branching off into three separate off-shoots from the main base of language. What surprises me the most about this visualization is how clean this relation is, and how geometric it is as well.

 

Word Cluster

family relation

The above visualization was created using the Jigsaw platform. The main take-away that this visualization presents immediately is the direct relation between words of urgency and between utterances of “mommy” or “daddy”. While this may appear obvious from a distance, seeing these rather dissimilar words that merely share the trait of urgency all having higher frequency of relations to utterances for parents is very interesting. As well, the sheer number of utterances of “mommy” compared to other types of names or actions is quite interesting to behold.

The obvious difference between the Voyant and Jigsaw platforms is in the way each handles the data that it processes. Voyant is more interested in word frequencies and relative originality of individual terms while Jigsaw is more focused on putting context into the words that it is given by dividing them into entities for analysis. Because of the nature of this context-based approach, Jigsaw isn’t very useful for large-scale text files that haven’t been properly parsed yet. For instance, Jigsaw is quite good at reading books or formal reports because of the way in which subjects are formatted and displayed within the texts. But for my corpora, I have a very large number of spoken utterances by children which aren’t always as syntactically literate as these. Because of this, I was tasked with defining my own set of entities based off of the components of my text that I wished to explore. Some examples of entities that I used are different pronoun forms, family members, and words of urgency. From there, I was able to make connections between these various groups using Jigsaw’s extensive document analysis and clustering tools. Voyant doesn’t allow you this much specific control. But, where Jigsaw succeeds in entity and core analysis, Voyant makes up for in large text analysis. Using Voyant I was able to make over-arching analytical conclusions about word usage which isn’t as clear when using Jigsaw. Both platforms are quite extensive in their offerings, as long as the data you are working with is tailored to what each platform provides.

The creation of this corpus, as well as the process of analyzing it with these two similar yet disparate platforms has yielded an interesting insight into what Clement was trying to get at in her piece on Analysis and Visualizations. On one hand, these images in front of me are displaying concrete information which was gathered from valid sources for analysis. Yet, all of this visualization is taking place in a completely virtual environment. None of it is physical, unless it were to be printed out or written down manually. This incongruity is interesting in the fact that it gives the researcher a reminder of the constraints of a virtual analysis process, while also appreciating that without the humanistic element to the analysis, no real conclusions could be drawn. We are simultaneously working as humanists and computer scientists in these moments, and are capable of making connections that neither could do alone.

Luke DuBois Exhibition: The Implication of Words

I believe that the main intent of DuBois’ work was to really make us think not only about the connections between us, but the nature in which words can describe and categorize us. Both in terms of history and culture throughout a region, words are able to define us and give a way of viewing ourselves in condensed form. For instance, his word cloud piece using transcriptions of State of the Union Addresses. This piece is capable of showing our nation, its troubles and triumphs, all in one snapshot over its entirety of existence. All they are were words spoken in repetition, but in repetition those words turned to meaning.

By using a mixture of computer-generated images and physical interactions between himself and his pieces, he appears to seek to bridge a gap between this mindless data and the artistic and social implications within it. In his network map of sent and received email correspondence, he could very well have had the program print out the names of the individuals in the communication for him. But the simple act of writing out the names himself helps to bridge these images with a more human implication within them. We see the connections not as just computer-made nodes, but as real people caught within real conversations.

Personally, my favorite visualization would probably have to be his film piece in which he condenses all Best Picture winners since 1927 into a single film by calculating the average shot usage and average pitch usages. This makes for an almost ephemeral experience when viewing the piece. In the same instant that we are confused about the images and noises flashing in front of us, we are also constantly digesting this information and trying to find things within it. I couldn’t help but try to deduce the films being displayed even though there was no use behind it. But even so, making that conclusion was something my mind wanted to do.

Complexity Without Perplexity: The Functional Visualization


musicovery

Musicovery

Musicovery combines two online music suggestion platforms (MusicPlasma and Pandora) into a visual music discovery system and internet radio. It does so by taking the music information and connection system created by Pandora and combining it with MusicPlasma’s novel interface for music discovery. What you get is a new system in which users can choose different musical categories as well as moods spatially on a map of all songs that fall into your current category. The user selects a central node to work off of, and Musicovery selects songs that fall within the proximity of your chosen node based off song popularity and mood.

I chose this visualization because I honestly found it really useful, even aside from the assignment itself. I’ve been listening to the service for the past hour and have already found new enjoyable music that I’ve never heard before.

It also serves as a great example of a dynamic visualization of data, allowing the user to select completely different data sets to predict from. This allows for the user to discover new music in proximity to songs that they like in order to broaden their musical horizons. As well, viewing favorite songs from a perspective of mood and genre all in relation to each other presents a unique new perspective on the data itself.

 

artists-edges

World of Music

World of Music was created by mining data from the Yahoo Music service and using it to create and map a network of connections between various artists found on the service. Artists that are more popular or have shared listeners are mapped according to space in relation to each other and color of popularity.

I found this visualization very interesting because of its immediate beauty but ultimate failure at doing that much with it. It is essentially a static visualization, only allowing the user to view the network as a whole and the ability to zoom in on certain parts of the network to see more detailed information. So, while it does make for a nice display and gives an interesting look at artist relationships, it doesn’t allow the user to do much than admire how pretty it looks.